Perkembangan Negara dan Pemerintahan Islam pada Masa Abu Bakar ash-Shiddiq

Masa pemerintahan Abu Bakar ash-Shiddiq (11-13 H)

Pemerintahan pada masa sahabat (Khalafa al-Rasyidin) Masa pemerintahan pada fase ini dibagi ke dalam empat masa.

Masa pemerintahan Abu Bakar ash-Shiddiq (11-13 H)

Menjelang wafat sampai menghadap ke haribaan Sang Khalik, Nabi tidak meninggalkan pesan wasiat tentang siapa yang berhak mengganti kedudukan kepala Negara setelahnya. Hal inilah yang kemudian menimbulkan kisruh di tubuh umat Islam.

Untunglah kesadaran politik yang telah tertanam pada salah seorang sahabat dari kaum Anshar menjadi solusi yang dapat mengantarkan kaum muslimin ke Tsaqifah Bani Saidah untuk mengadakan musyawarah. Musyawarah tersebut akhirnya mencapai kata mufakat dengan terpilihnya Abu Bakarsebagai Khalifah, pengganti Rasulullah sekaligus menjadikan sistem pemerintahan dengan model khalifah pertama.

Pada perjalanannya pemerintahan yang dipimpin Khalifah Abu Bakar, sedikit banyak mengalami goncangan yang dapat mengarah pada perpecahan dan mengancam persatuan dan kesatuan kaum muslimin yang telah terbangun.

Sebagai khalifah yang berkuasa, Abu Bakar dapat menguasai hal tersebut dengan berpijak pada prinsip musyawarah yang beliau laksanakan dengan menjunjung tinggi keterbukaan dan sikap demokratis.

Dalam pidato pengukuhannya, beliau menyampaikan beberapa hal penting yang akan dilaksanakan pada pemerinthannya. Diantaranya:

(1) Beliau menjamin kebebasan berpendapat bagi setiap warga negara.

(2) Mengembangkan sikap kritis. Hal ini dibuktikan bahwa beliau siap dan akan menerima setiap kritik yang dilontarkan apabila beliau salah dan menyimpang dalam memerintah.

(3) Menuntut adanya ketaatan dari rakyat pada pemimpinnya selama pemimpin tersebut memerintahkan pada hal yang benar dan positif.

(4) Mewujudkan keadilan dengan memberikan hak-hak kaum lemah dan mengambil hak-hak orang kuat untuk melaksanakan kewajiban bagi kepentingan masyarakat dan negara.

(5) Mendorong umat agar giat dalam melaksanakan perintah agama.

Kepemimpinan Abu Bakar dengan berbagai tantangan yang dihadapinya telah berhasil membangun pranata sosial politik, pertahanan, dan keamanan bangsa dan Negara.

Dalam tugas-tugas eksekutif, beliau mendelegasikan tugas-tugas tersebut kepada pusat maupun daerah dengan membentuk beberapa propinsi yang dipimpin oleh seorang amir atau gubernur.

Pada tataran sosial ekonomi, beliau sukses mewujudkan keadilan dan kesejahteraan secara merata dengan pemberdayaan zakat, infak, sedekah. dan harta yang berasal dari ghanimah (rampasan perang) dan jizyah yang dikelola secara profesional.

Referensi : Hamsah Hasan, dkk, Buku Panduan Lengkap Agama Islam, Qultum Media, Jakarta, 2010

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