Tafsir Surat Al Qadr

al-quran

Al Qadr (Kemuliaan). Surat ke-97. 5 ayat. Makkiyyah

Dengan menyebut nama Allah Yang Maha Pemurah lagi Maha Penyayang.

Ayat 1-5: Keutamaan Lailatul Qadr di atas seluruh malam.

إِنَّا أَنْزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ (١) وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ (٢) لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ (٣) تَنَزَّلُ الْمَلائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ فِيهَا بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِمْ مِنْ كُلِّ أَمْرٍ (٤) سَلامٌ هِيَ حَتَّى مَطْلَعِ الْفَجْرِ                 (٥)

Terjemah Surat Al Qadar Ayat 1-5

1. [1]Sesungguhnya Kami telah menurunkannya (Al Quran) pada malam kemuliaan[2].

2. Dan tahukah kamu apakah malam kemuliaan itu?[3]

3. Malam kemuliaan itu lebih baik daripada seribu bulan[4].

4. Pada malam itu turun para malaikat dan Ruh (Jibril) dengan izin Tuhannya[5] untuk mengatur semua urusan[6].

5. Sejahteralah (malam itu)[7] sampai terbit fajar[8].

***

[1] Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala berfirman menerangkan keutamaan Al Qur’an dan ketinggian kedudukannya.

[2] Malam kemuliaan dikenal dengan malam Lailatul Qadr, yaitu suatu malam yang penuh kemuliaan dan kebesaran, karena pada malam itu permulaan turunnya Al Quran. Menurut Syaikh As Sa’diy, dinamakan Lailatul Qadr karena besarnya kedudukannya dan keutamaannya di sisi Allah, demikian pula karena pada malam itu ditentukan apa yang akan terjadi dalam setahun berupa ajal, rezeki dan ketentuan-ketentuan taqdir.

Ibnu Abbas berkata, “Allah menurunkan Al Qur’an secara sekaligus dari Lauh Mahfuzh ke Baitul ‘Izzah di langit dunia, kemudian turun secara berangsur-angsur sesuai situasi dan kondisi selama 23 tahun kepada Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.” Malam tersebut adalah malam yang penuh berkah. Barang siapa yang melakukan qiyamullail pada malam itu karena iman dan mengharap pahala, maka akan diampuni dosa-dosanya yang telah lalu sebagaimana disebutkan dalam Shahih Bukhari dan Muslim.

[3] Kalimat ini untuk membesarkan malam Lailatul Qadr.

[4] Yakni beramal saleh atau beribadah bertepatan dengan malam itu lebih baik baik daripada beribadah selama seribu bulan. Syaikh As Sa’diy berkata, “Hal ini termasuk hal yang mencengangkan hati dan akal, karena Allah Tabaaraka wa Ta’aala melimpahkan nikmat kepada umat yang lemah kekuatannya dengan malam yang beramal pada malam itu mengimbangi dan melebihi (beramal) selama seribu bulan; (seukuran) umur seseorang yang dipanjangkan umurnya selama 80 tahun lebih.”

[5] Ibnu Katsir berkata, “Banyak para malaikat yang turun pada malam ini karena banyak keberkahannya, dan para malaikat turun bersamaan turunnya berkah dan rahmat, sebagaimana mereka turun pula ketika Al Qur’an dibaca, (turun) mengelilingi majlis dzikr dan menaruh sayap-sayapnya kepada penuntut ilmu karena memuliakannya.” Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda:

لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ لَيْلَةٌ سَابِعَةٌ أَوْ تَاسِعَةٌ وَ عِشْرِيْنَ إِنَّ الْمَلاَئِكَةَ تِلْكَ اللَّيْلَةَ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَكْثَرُ مِنْ عَدَدِ الْحَصَى

“Malam Lailatul Qadr itu adalah malam ke 27 atau 29. Sesungguhnya para malaikat pada malam itu di bumi lebih banyak daripada banyaknya batu kerikil.” (HR. Ahmad dan Thayalisi. Hadits ini dihasankan oleh Syaikh Al Albani dalam Shahihul Jaami’ no. 5473).

[6] Qatadah berkata, “Pada malam itu ditentukan segala urusan dan ditentukan ajal dan rezeki, sebagaimana firman Allah Ta’ala, “Pada malam itu dijelaskan segala urusan yang penuh hikmah,” (Terj. Ad Dukhaan: 4)

[7] Sa’id bin Manshur berkata dari Mujahid tentang firman Allah, “Sejahteralah (malam itu),” ia berkata, “Yakni sejahtera, dimana setan tidak dapat berbuat buruk di dalamnya atau mengganggu.” Qatadah dan Ibnu Zaid berkata tentang firman Allah Ta’ala, “Sejahteralah (malam itu),” maksudnya malam itu baik seluruhnya tidak ada keburukan sampai terbit fajar.”

Tentang tanda malam Lailatul Qadr, Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda:

لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ لَيْلَةٌ بَلْجَةٌ لاَ حَارَّةٌ وَ لاَ بَارِدَةٌ  (وَلاَسَحَابٌ فِيْهَا وَلاَمَطَرٌ وَلاَرِيْحٌ )  وَ لاَ يُرْمَى فِيْهَا بِنَجْمٍ وَ مِنْ عَلاَمَةِ يَوْمِهَا تَطْلُعُ الشَّمْسُ لاَ شُعَاعَ لَهَا

“Malam Lailatul Qadr adalah malam yang terang, tidak panas dan tidak dingin (tidak ada gumpalan awan, hujan maupun angin), dan tidak dilepaskan bintang. Sedangkan di antara tanda pada siang harinya adalah terbitnya matahari tanpa ada syu’anya.” (HR. Thabrani dalam Al Kabir dari Watsilah, dan dihasankan oleh Syaikh Al Albani dalam Shahihul Jaami’ no. 5472, namun yang disebutkan dalam tanda kurung menurutnya adalah dha’if, lihat Dha’iful Jaami’ no. 4958) Syu’a, menurut Imam Nawawi artinya yang terlihat dari sinar matahari ketika baru muncul seperti gunung dan batang yang menghadap kepadamu ketika engkau melihatnya, yakni sinar matahari yang berserakan.

Beliau shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam juga bersabda:

لَيْلَةٌ سَمْحَةٌ طَلْقَةٌ لاَ حَارَّة ٌوَلاَ بَارِدَةٌ وَتُصْبِحُ شَمْسُ صَبِيْحَتِهَا ضَعِيْفَةٌ حَمْرَاءُ

“(Malam Lailatul Qadr adalah) malam yang ringan, sedang, tidak panas dan tidak dingin, dimana matahari pada pagi harinya melemah kemerah-merahan.” (HR. Thayalisi dan Baihaqi dalam Syu’abul Iman, dishahihkan oleh Syaikh Al Albani dalam Shahihul Jaami’ no. 5475).

Ibnu Katsir berkata, “Dan tanda malam Lailatul qadr adalah bahwa malam tersebut bersih, terang, seakan-akan ada bulan yang bersinar, tenang, tidak dingin dan tidak panas, sedangkan (pada pagi hari) matahari terbit dalam keadaan sedang tanpa ada sinar yang berserakan seperti bulan pada malam purnama.”

Catatan:

Lailatul qadr tidak terjadi pada malam tertentu secara khusus dalam setiap tahunnya, namun berubah-rubah, mungkin pada tahun sekarang malam ke 27, pada tahun depan malam ke 29 dsb. Dan sangat diharapkan terjadi pada malam ke 27. Mungkin hikmah mengapa malam Lailatul qadr disembunyikan oleh Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala adalah agar diketahui siapa yang sungguh-sungguh beribadah dan siapa yang bermalas-malasan.

[8] Yakni awalnya dari tenggelam matahari dan akhirnya sampai terbit fajar.

Syaikh As Sa’diy berkata, “Telah mutawatir hadits-hadits tentang keutamaannya, dan bahwa hal itu terjadi pada bulan Ramadhan, yatu pada sepuluh terakhir daripadanya, khususnya pada malam-malam ganjilnya, dan hal itu berlaku pada setiap tahun sampai hari Kiamat. Oleh karena itu, Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam beri’tikaf dan memperbanyak ibadah pada sepuluh terakhir dari bulan Ramadhan karena mengharapkan Lailatul Qadr, wallahu a’lam.”

Selesai tafsir surah Al Qadr dengan pertolongan Allah, taufiq-Nya dan kemudahan-Nya, wal hamdulillahi Rabbil ‘aalamiin.

Oleh : Marwan bin Musa, Sumber : tafsir.web.id

29 thoughts on “Tafsir Surat Al Qadr

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    Photo by Alex Orlov
    Mistake #4: You have bad posture.
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