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Perkembangan Negara dan Pemerintahan Islam pada Masa pasca Khalafa al-Rasyidin

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Masa pemerintahan pasca Khalafa al-Rasyidin Pada fase ini, masa pemerintahan terbagi kepada dua masa. Pertama, masa pemerintahan Dinasti Umayah (41-132 H)

Masa pemerintahan dinasti ini dimulai sejak wafatnya Khalifah Ali Bin Abi Thalib. Sebagai penggantinya ialah Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan mantan gubernur sejak masa pemerintahan Khalifah Umar.

Terpilihnya Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan setelah dinyatakan sebagai pemenang oleh majlis tahkim yang sebelum Hasan bin Ali yang dibaiat pengikut setia Ali dinyatakan sebagai Khalifah memutuskan untuk mengundurkan diri dari percaturan politik. Hal itu dilakukan Hasan karena tak ingin melihat kembali pertumpahan darah terjadi diantara umat Islam.

Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan dikenal sebagi politikus dan administrator yang pandai, cakap dalam urusan politik pemerintahan, cerdas dan jujur. Selain itu ia dikenal sebagai ahli dalam bersiasat, merancang taktik, strategi dan gigih dalam berjuang.

Pada pemerintahannya banyak langkah baru yang diambil, di antaranya: (1) adanya pemindahan pusat pemerintahan dari Madinah ke Damaskus dengan alasan politik dan jaminan keamanan. (2) Memberikan penghargaan kepada orang-orang yang telah berjasa dalam perjuangannya mencapai puncak kekuasaan. (3) Menumpas oposisi yang dapat membahayakan kedudukannya dan menumpas kaum pemberontak. (4) Membangun kekuatan militer yang terdiri dari angkatan darat, angkatan laut, dan kepolisian yang tangguh dan loyal. (5) Meneruskan perluasan wilayah kekuasaan ke timur dan barat. (6) Muawiyah dan para penerusnya merekrut orang-orang non muslim sebagai pejabat dalam pemerintahannya. (7) Mengadakan pembaharuan di bidang administrasi. (8) Mengubah sistem pemerintahan dari model khalifah dengan corak demokrasi menjadi corak monarki.

Dinasti Umayah membentuk beberapa departemen dalam mendukung pemerintahannya seperti (1) Diwan al-Rasail (Departemen yang mengurus surat-menyurat Negara). (2) Diwan al-khatim (Depertemen pencatat dan penyalin keputusan dan peraturan pemerintah). (3) Diwan al-kharaj (Departemen pendapatan negara). (4) Diwan al-barid (Depertemen pelayanan pos)

Kedua, Masa pemerintahan Dinasti Abbasyiyah (132-565 H/750-1258 M)

Selanjutnya, kekuasaan Dinasti Umayah jatuh ke tangan Dinasti Abbasyiyah. Dinasti ini merupakan keturunan Bani Hasyim suku Quraisy dan dinasti ini didirikan oleh Abu Abbas seorang keturunan dari paman Nabi.

Khalifah-khalifah yang memerintah pada masa kekuasaan dinasti ini mengalami puncak kejayaan di berbagai bidang. Bidang politik, sosial, budaya, ekonomi, militer dan pengetahuan. Kejayaan ini telah menempatkan dunia Islam sebagai pusat kebudayaan dan ilmu pengetahuan serta kekuatan raksasa di belahan dunia timur.

Tidak jauh berbeda dengan dinasti sebelumnya, sistem yang dipakai ialah sistem monarki, tetapi ada sedikit perbedaan dengan sebelumnya. Pada masa dinasti ini khalifah-khalifah Abbasiyah menempatkan dirinya sebagai Zhilalullah fi al-ardli (bayangan Allah di muka bumi) hal ini menandakan bahwa kekuasaan khalifah lebih bersifat absolut. Hal tersebut sebagai dampak dan pengaruh yang ditimbulkan dari kebudayaan Persia.

Prestasi yang gemilang yang tercatat sejarah kebudayaan Islam ialah tercermin pada adanya pemenfaatan kemajuan ekonomi yang dipergunakan untuk mengembangkan penelitian-penelitian ilmiah dalam berbagi bidang ilmu. Akhir riwayat dinasti ini ialah jatuh pada tahun 1258 M di tangan orang-orang Mongol di bawah pimpinan Hulagu.

Setelah masa tersebut dunia Islam tidak lagi dipimpin oleh kekhalifahan yang tersisa hanyalah kerajaan-kerajaan kecil dengan dikepalai seorang sultan. Namun pada abad keenam belas riak-riak itu muncul kembali dengan ditandai berdirinya tiga kerajaan Islam; Kerajaan Turki Utsmani, Kerajaan Safawi di Persia, dan Kerajaan Mughal di India yang menjadi simbol kekuatan dan kemajuan Islam kembali terutama dalam bidang literature dan arsitektur.

Referensi : Hamsah Hasan, dkk, Buku Panduan Lengkap Agama Islam, Qultum Media, Jakarta, 2010

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