Perkembangan Negara dan Pemerintahan Islam pada Masa pasca Khilafah

Perkembangan Negara dan Pemerintahan Islam pada Masa pasca Khilafah 

Politik Islam

Keempat, masa pemerintahan pasca Khilafah atau pada masa modern. Pada masa ini sistem pemerintahan dan bentuk yang dipakai Negara yang mayoritas berpenduduk Islam cukuplah beragam dengan karakteristik sebagai berikut.

(1) Republik Turki dengan bentuk negara republik murni berfaham sekuler dengan orientasi menjadi negara maju dan modern di bawah pimpinan Musthafa Kemal.

(2) Republik Arab Mesir dengan bentuk pemerintahan republik dibawah pimpinan Gamal Abdul Nasser. Agama Islam sebagi agama resmi negara, dan bahasa resminya ialah bahasa Arab sedangkan prinsi-prinsip Islam merupakan sumber utama dalam pembuatan dan perumusan undang-undang. Namun, pada praktiknya hukum Islam hanya berlaku pada hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan masalah kewarisan, pernikahan dan wakaf.

(3) Republik Irak dengan presiden sebagai kepala pemerintahan. Negara ini menerapkan peradilan dengan sistem syariat dan sistem lain.

(4) Syiria dengan bentuk republik yang dikepalai oleh presiden. Setiap warga Negara memiliki peradilan berdasarkan komunitas agama.

(5) Kerajaan Arab Saudi yang dipimpin seorang raja dan hukum yang dipakai ialah syariat Islam.

(6) Kerajaan Jordania Hasyimiyah dengan Islam sebagi agama Negara dan bahasa arab ialah bahasa resmi serta hukum Islam meniadi sumber utama dalam pembuatan hukum dan undang-undang.

(7) Uni Emirat Arab, Negara ini merupakan Negara federasi dari tujuh keemiran yang terdiri dari Abu Dhabi, al-Fujairah, Dubai, Sharjah, Umm aI-Qaiwain, Aiman dan Ras aI-Khaimah. Kepala federasi ialah presiden dan yang melaksanakan pemerintahan ialah perdana mentri.

(8) Republik Islam Iran dengan agama resminya Islam dengan paham syiah namun mengakui keberadaan aliran Islam lain dan agama lainnya.

(9) Kesultanan Oman, dipimpin seorang sultan dengan memberlakukan syariat Islam.

(10) Negara federasi Malaysia yang terdiri dari 13 negara bagian dengan bentuk kerajaan dipimpin oleh sultan yang bergelar Yang Dipertuan Agong dan kepala pemerintahan ialah perdana menteri.

(11) Negara kesatuan Republik Indonesia dipimpin oleh presiden merupakan salah satu Negara yang berkomunitas muslim terbesar. Prinsip-prinsip islam banyak tercermin dalam undang-undang Dasar 1945. #darulilmi

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