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Perkembangan Negara dan Pemerintahan Islam pada Masa Umar bin Khathab

Masa pemerintahan Umar bin Khathab (13-23 H)

Dalam pidato pengangkatannya, Umar bin Khathab menekankan beberapa prisip yang akan mewarnai kepemimpinannya. Adapun prinsip tersebut adalah: (1) Beliau memberikan persyaratan yang mesti dimiliki oleh seorang calon kepala negara. (2) Menetapkan dasar-dasar pengelolaan Negara. (3) Mendorong para pejabat agar benar-benar mengutamakan dan memperhatikan kepentingan dan kemaslahatan umum. (4) Memberikan sinyal bahwa jabatan yang dipegang oleh siapa pun merupakan amanah yang mesti ditunaikan dengan baik dan dapat dipertanggungjawabkan kepada Tuhan dan rakyat yang dipimpinnya. (5) Menanamkan jiwa kritis pada rakyat dan menerapkan tidak kebal kritik kepada para pejabat pemerintahan. (6) Meletakkan dasar-dasar pengadilan dalam Islam.

Khalifah Umar juga concern menanamkan semangat demokrasi secara intensif di kalangan rakyat, tokoh masyarakat, serta pejabat pemerintahan. Umar mewujudkan musyawarah sebagai lembaga tertinggi yang memegang kekuasaan legislatif.

Dalam bidang administrasi negara, beliau membuat aturan administrasi dan mengorganisir kekayaan negara dengan baik, efektif, dan efsien. Selain administrator handal, beliau juga dikenal sebagai pembaharu kebijakan dengan berhasil membentuk beberapa jawatan. Jawatan-jawatan tersebut antara lain, (1) Diwan al-akharaj (jawatan pajak). (2) Diwan al-ahdats (jawatan kepolisian). (3) Diwan al-Naji’at (jawatan pekerjaan umum). (4) Diwan al-jund (jawatan militer). (5) Bait al-mal (lembaga pembendaharaan negara).

Dalam sisi pranata sosial politik, beliau menggunakan sistem desentralisasi yang memberikan kewenangan dan otonomi kepada pemerintah daerah atau propinsi yang dipimpin oleh gubernur.

Sedangkan dalam segi sosial ekonomi, masa khalifah Umar merupakan masa yang berlimpah dengan harta dan berhasil mensejahterakan pejabat dan rakyat.

Referensi : Hamsah Hasan, dkk, Buku Panduan Lengkap Agama Islam, Qultum Media, Jakarta, 2010

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