Perkembangan Negara dan Pemerintahan Islam pada Masa Utsman bin Affan

Masa pemerintahan Utsman bin Affan (23-35 H)

Lewat kepiawaian Abdurahman bin Auf dalam musyawarah yang demokratis dalam rangka memilih pengganti Umar bin Khathab, terpilihlah Utsman bin Affan sebagai Khalifah yang baru, menggantikan Khalifah Umar.

Dalam pidato penerimaannya, sebagai Khalifah Utsman menggambarkan bahwa pemerintahan yang akan dipimpinnya bercorak agamis ketimbang corak politis yang dominan. Hal tersebut tercermin dari beberapa pernyataannya. (1) Beliau menghimbau kepada umat Islam agar senantiasa berbuat baik untuk bekal dan persiapan menghadapi kematian. (2) Umat Islam dihimbau-agar tidak tergoda dan terlena oleh kemewahan hidup. (3) Umat islam agar dapat mengambil pelajaran dari masa lalu dan mengambil hal yang baik serta menjauhkan hal yang buruk. (4) Beliau bertekad melaksanakan ketentuan Al Qur‘an dan as-Sunah dalam menjalankan pemerintahannya. (5) Selain meneruskan apa yang telah dirintis khalifah sebelumnya, beliau juga meretas hal-hal yang baru yang mambawa kepada kebajikan. (6) Mengembangkan sikap kritis pada rakyat.

Dari butir-butir pernyataan di atas, dapatlah digambarkan bahwa Khalifah Utsman bertekad mewujudkan pemerintahan yang baik, bersih, jujur, memihak dan melayani kepentingan rakyat, menghormati dan melindungi hak-hak rakyat, mewujudkan keadilan, dan menegakan amar ma’ruf nahi munkar.

Prestasi tertinggi yang diraih pada masa pemerintahannya sebagai hasil yang dilandaskan pada musyawarah ialah berhasil menetapkan menyusun Al-Qur’an standar, yaitu adanya penyeragaman tulisan dan bacaan AI-Quran.

Dalam bidang administrasi Negara beliau cukup sukses, begitupun dalam hal perluasan daerah kekuasaan, dan berhasil melakukan pembangunan-pembangunan sarana umum, seperti daerah pemukiman, jalan-jalan, jembatan, masjid, dan sarana lainnya. Selain sebagai kepala Negara beliau juga dikenal sebagai hartawan dengan sifat dermawan yang luar biasa, orang yang jujur, sederhana, dan lemah lembut. #darulilmi

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