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Perkembangan Negara dan Pemerintahan Islam pada Masa Nabi Muhammad SAW

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Negara dan pemerintahan dalam sejarah Islam mengalami beberapa fase. Setiap fase memiliki sistem dan ciri khas pemerintahan yang berbeda-beda. Fase-fase tersebut dimulai sejak ditegakkannya Negara Islam pada masa Rasulullah kemudian mengalami perkembangan. Perkembangan ini cukup mewarnai khazanah perjalanan Islam dulu sampai saat ini. Dari sudut pandang ilmu politik dan ketatanegaraan, ini merupakan sebuah pengetahuan yang dapat ditawarkan sebagai rujukan dalam menghadapi perkembangan zaman dan demi tercapainya tatanan dunia yang damai dan sejahtera.

Adapun fase-fase tersebut dapat digolongkan kepada beberapa masa seperti berikut ini.

Pertama, pemerintahan pada masa Nabi saw

Pada masa ini, Madinah merupakan Negara dan pemerintahan Islam pertama dalam sejarah Islam, yang kemudian dikenal dengan nama Negara Madinah. Negara Madinah terbentuk melalui kristalisasi perkembangan penganut Islam yang menjelma menjadi kekuatan politik dan sosial saat itu.

Nabi sebagai Kepala Negara telah membawa perubahan besar dan signifikan terhadap sistem dan kondisi sosial pada saat golongan minoritas yang tertindas mendapat perlindungan dari negara dan pemerintah Islam.

Perubahan yang sangat penting ialah umat Islam yang tidak memiliki kekuasaan menjelma menjadi kekuatan sosial politik yang diperhitungkan. Sehingga, Nabi mendapatkan dukungan moril dan dukungan politik dari sejumlah kelompok suku Arab. Ini dibuktikan dengan makin banyaknya yang berbondong-bondong masuk Islam.

Aktivitas kenegaraan Nabi saw sejak membentuk Negara Madinah ialah membangun Masjid Quba. Pembangunan yang dilaksanakan Nabi berorientasi kepada aspek religius-sosial. Dari sisi agama, masjid merupakan denyut nadi kehidupan seorang muslim dalam beribadah kepada Allah, sedangkan dari sisi sosial, masjid merupakan tempat yang memiliki fungsi dan berperan sebagai sarana silaturahim dan pemersatu umat.

Setelah itu, Nabi saw menata kehidupan sosial-politik berlandaskan kepada Al-Qur‘an dan as-Sunah. Dengan kemampuan yang dimiliki dan dibarengi usaha yang tak kenal henti, Nabi sukses menata urusan umat Islam yang dilanjutkan dengan penataan urusan masyarakat di luar Islam yang terdapat di Madinah.

Nabi sebagai negarawan ulung melanjutkan tugas-tugasnya. Beliau membuat undang-undang Negara, mencegah timbulnya konflik, memelihara stabilitas nasional, melakukan hubungan internasional, membentuk militer, mengirim delegasi pada penguasa-penguasa di jazirah Arab, menunjuk dan mengangkat para pembantu dan perwakilan pemerintahan di daerah.

Praktik pemerintahan selanjutnya ialah praktik yang tampak Pada pelaksanaan tugas yang terpusat pada diri beliau, sebagaimana tertera pada piagam Madinah bahwa Nabi pemegang kekuasaan legislatif, eksekutif, dan yudikatif. Beliau mendelegasikan tugas-tugas eksekutif dan yudikatif kepada sahabat yang kompeten dan mumpuni.

Nabi yang memiliki multi talenta telah berhasil menggabungkan aspek duniawi dan aspek ukhrawi (akhirat). Dengan kata lain Nabi telah berhasil memberikan dan menerapkan keseimbangan antara kemaslahatan dunia dan akhirat bagi seluruh masyarakatnya pada masa itu.

Referensi : Hamsah Hasan, dkk, Buku Panduan Lengkap Agama Islam, Qultum Media, Jakarta, 2010

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