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Politik Islam : Kajian Siyasah Dusturiyah

Kajian Siyasah Dusturiyah
Politik Islam

Siyasah dusturiyah ialah perundang-undang dan peraturan yang mengatur prinsip-prinsip masyarakat dalam sebuah negara, maka yang menjadi objek konsentrasi kajiannya adalah sebagai berikut.

Kepemimpinan (Imamah)

Secara etimologi imamah berarti (memimpin, pemimpin, dan kepemimpinan). Secara terminologi imamah sebagaimana dikemukakan oleh al-Mawardi. “Imamah ialah suatu kedudukan atau jabatan yang diadakan untuk mengganti tugas kenabian dalam memelihara agama dan mengendalikan dunia”

Imamah ialah kepemimpinan yang dipimpin oleh seorang imam atau pemimpin yang berorientasi menjaga dan memberikan kemaslahatan bagi masyarakat atau rakyatnya dunia maupun akhirat. Hal inilah yang membedakan kepemimpinan dalam sistem Islam dengan sistem kepemimpinan di luar Islam.

Dasar Hukum

Yang menjadi dasar hukum dari kepemimpinan ialah firman Allah, “Kami jadikan di antara mereka itu pemimpin-pemimpin yang memberi petunjuk dengan perintah kami ketika mereka sabar dan adalah mereka meyakini ayat-ayat kami.” (QS As Sajdah : 24)

Ayat ini menerangkan adanya kemestian mengangkat pemimpin. Lebih lanjut ayat tersebut menerangkan kriteria pemimpin dalam Islam. Imam atau pemimpin adalah orang tertinggi dan yang memegang kekuasaan dalam sebuah kepemimpinan, orang yang diikuti dan mempunyai orientasi kepada kebaikan. Oleh karena itu, hanya orang yang selalu mengarahkan segala sesuatu kepada kebaikan yang pantas jadi pemimpin.

Hak-hak Imam

Pemimpin atau imam adalah pemegang dan yang menjalankan kekuasaan tertinggi, semuanya erat kaitannya dengan kepentingan rakyat. Oleh sebab itu, seorang pemimpin atau imam mempunyai hak-hak yang harus diterimanya. Adapun hak-hak seorang pemimpin atau Imam ialah:

1. Wajib ditaati. Menaati pemimpin merupakan kewajiban yang mesti dilaksanakan oleh rakyatnya selama pemimpin tersebut menyuruh kepada hal-hal yang baik.

2. Wajib dibantu dalam segala sesuatu yang berkaitan dengan penyelenggaraan negara dan hal-hal yang menyangkut kepentingan umum.

3. Wajib mendapatkan gaji dari kas negara sebagai konsekuensi atas kinerjanya dalam mengurus pemerintahan.

Kewajiban-kewajiban Imam

Selain hak yang mesti didapatkan seorang imam atau pemimpin, terdapat kewajiban-kewajiban yang mesti ditunaikan. Adapun kewajiban-kewajiban tersebut adalah sebagai berikut.

1. Memelihara dan menegakkan kemuliaan agama. Hal ini sebagai tugas pokok yang mesti diemban mengingat agama merupakan muara bagi segala permasalahan. Menegakkan hukum-hukum Allah dan memelihara hak-hak rakyat agar tidak terjadi kerusakan dan kebinasaan.

2. Menegakkan supremasi hukum dan keadilan bagi seluruh rakyat dengan tidak memandang golongan, suku, dan status sosial.

3. Memelihara keamanan bagi seluruh rakyat demi terciptanya ketentraman dan kedamaian. Dengan demikian rakyat dapat tenang mencari penghidupan dan dapat menentukan nasibnya sendiri.

4. Menjaga kedaulatan negara dari serangan dan rongrongan musuh, baik dalam maupun luar negeri.

5. Memerangi orang yang menentang dan memerangi Islam.

6. Memungut pajak dan sedekah-sedekah sesuai dengan ketentuan syariat.

7. Mensejahterakan rakyat dengan memberikan bantuan yang adil dari kas negara (bait al-mal) kepada yang berhak menerimanya.

8. Mengangkat orang-orang yang mampu dan terpercaya sebagai pembantu dalam tugas-tugas pemerintahan. #darulilmi

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51 thoughts on “Politik Islam : Kajian Siyasah Dusturiyah

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