Rakyat (Siyasah, Politik Islam)

(Siyasah, Politik Islam)

Yang disebut dengan rakyat ialah sekumpulan orang (masyarakat) yang mendiami suatu tempat dalam jangka waktu yang cukup lama. Rakyat merupakan elemen yang penting dalam sebuah negara. Negara tidak mungkin disebut negara apabila tidak ada rakyat.

Status Rakyat

Secara umum rakyat dapat dibedakan menjadi dua. Rakyat muslim dan non-muslim. Dari dua kategori rakyat tersebut, ada yang berdomisili tetap (warga negara) dan ada yang sementara (musta’min) atau orang asing. Rakyat yang berdomisili tetap terdiri dari warga muslim dan warga non-muslim. Bagi rakyat non-muslim yang berdomisili secara tetap (kafir dzimmi), status mereka termasuk warga yang mendapat perlindungan, dihormati jiwanya, kehormatannya, dan hartanya oleh negara. Mereka memiliki hak-hak kemanusiaan, hak sipil, dan hak politik. Sedangkan bagi orang asing, mereka hanya mendapat hak kemanusiaan dan tidak memiliki hak politik.

Hak-hak Rakyat

Rakyat mempunyai hak-hak yang harus dipenuhi oleh pemimpin dan penyelenggara negara. Adapun hak-hak rakyat ialah sebagai berikut.

Pertama, berhak menerima hak-hak kemanusiaan, yaitu dilindungi dan dihormati jiwa, kehormatan, dan hartanya.

Kedua, berhak menerima hak-hak sipil, yaitu hak-hak sebagai warga negara. Seperti, perlindungan terhadap kebebasan pribadi, kebebasan berkeyakinan dan berpendapat.

Ketiga, berhak menerima hak-hak politik.
Kewajiban-kewajiban Rakyat

Rakyat juga memiliki kewajiban-kewajiban yang mesti dilaksanakan, antara lain:

a. Berkewajiban menaati imam atau pemimpin selama pemimpin tersebut memerintahkan kepada kebaikan yang menyangkut kepentingan umum.

b. Berpatisipasi dan berperan aktif dalam menyukseskan program-program yang telah dicanangkan pemimpin.

3. Pengambilan Sumpah (Bai’at)

Baiat berasal dari kata baa’a – yabii’u  (menjual) dan dapat diartikan mengandung perjanjian. Secara terminalogi ialah pengambilan sumpah setia yang dilakukan oleh wakil rakyat yang terpilih menjadi pemimpin atau pejabat negara yang terpilih. Sumpah ini dilakukan dengan kesungguhan menjalankan amanat yang diemban dan dipertanggungjawabkan di hadapan Allah. Dalam hal ini seseorang yang diambil sumpahnya seakan-akan menjual apa yang dimilikinya dan menyerahkannya kepada pihak yang membeli. Maka, perjanjian ini terjadi antara dua pihak, antara pemimpin atau pejabat yang disumpah dan orang atau lembaga yang mengambil sumpah.

Baiat merupakan ungkapan yang dapat diartikan sebagai kontrak sosial. Karena dengan keterpilihannya, seseorang menyerahkan hak kekuasaan dirinya kepada pihak atau lembaga lain.

Dasar Hukum Baiat

Dasar hukum baiat ialah Erman Allah, “Bahwasanya orang-orang yang berjanji setia kepada kamu Sesungguhnya mereka berjanji setia kepada Allah, tangan Allah di atas tangan mereka. Maka barangsiapa yang melanggar janjinya niscaya akibat ia melanggar janji itu akan menimpa dirinya sendiri dan barangsiapa menepati janjinya kepada Allah Maka Allah akan memberinya pahala yang besar.” (QS Al-Fath: 10) #darulilmi

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