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Negara dan Islam

Negara dan Islam

(Siyasah, Politik Islam)

Islam bukan semata-mata agama yang mengatur masalah akidah, namun jauh dari itu, Islam mengatur pula masalah-masalah yang berhubungan dengan ketatanegaraan. Rasulullah telah meletakkan dasar agama ketika berdakwah di Mekah dan membangun dasar-dasar negara ketika berhijrah dan menetap di Madinah.

Adanya kewajiban dalam mendirikan negara dengan undangundang dan aturan yang khusus merupakan ciri bahwa agama dan negara mempunyai hubungan yang erat dan tidak dapat dipisahkan.

Hal yang demikian cukuplah beralasan mengingat:

1. Islam mengajarkan prinsip musyawarah, pertanggungjawaban, adanya kewajiban rakyat pada pemimpinnya, dan hubungan antarnegara.

2. Islam memandang bahwa negara merupakan wadah dalam menegakkan hukum, seperti penegakan hukum pidana.

3. Di kalangan para ahli Fiqih dikenal adanya istilah Darul Islam (Daulah Islamiyah) atau negara dengan sistem pemerintahan Islam dan Darul Harb (Non-Islam).

4. Rasul saw merupakan kepala negara dan pemerintahan di Madinah pada masanya.

Masalah pendirian negara Islam mempunyai dasar yang tidak bisa diPandang remeh, setidaknya masalah tersebut berdasarkan kepada hal-hal sebagai berikut.

1. Sunah Rasul saw yang telah dicontohkan dengan membentuk negara di Madinah.

2. Tujuan syariat Islam yang senantiasa ingin menciptakan tatanan yang aman dan terhindar dari kekacauan.

3. Sebagai pelaksanaan tugas-tugas keagamaan.

4. Mewujudkan keadilan yang dapat dinikmati oleh semua lapisan dan elemen masyarakat yang berbangsa dan bernegara.

Adapun struktur negara yang memakai sistem Islam pada dasarnya tidakjauh berbeda dengan negara-negara non Islam. negara Islam memiliki struktur-struktur:

(1) Adanya pengakuan terhadap Allah, bahwa Allah merupakan pemilik mutlak kekuasaan.
(2) Peri kemanusiaan.
(3) Ukhwah lslamiyah.
(4) Asuransi sosial (al-Takafumi Ijtima’i), dalam hal ini terbagi dua: pertama, bersifat materi, seperti zakat, dan infak. Kedua, bersifat immateri, seperti amar ma’ruf nahyi munkar, nasihat-nasihat, pendidikan.
(5) Keadilan. #darulilmi

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