Siyasah Dauliyah (Politik Negara Islam)

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Manusia memiliki keinginan untuk hidup berdampingan secara damai dengan seluruh bangsa yang ada di dunia. Keinginan itu merupakan cita-cita yang ideal bagi kelangsungan hidup manusia di muka bumi demi tercapainya kemaslahatan.

Keinginan ini dapat terwjudkan dengan adanya perjanjian antarnegara serta dengan adanya adat kebiasaan masyarakat internasional. Dua hal ini merupakan sumber terpenting dalam mewujudkan perdamaian antarbangsa dan negara yang ada di dunia.

Secara etimologi dauliyah berasal dari kata daala – yaduulu – daulah (negara, kerajaan, kekuasaan). Secara terminologi siyasah dauliyah ialah aturan-aturan yang mengatur kebijakan suatu negara dalam hubungan internasional. Aturan-aturan tersebut telah ditetapkan oleh suatu negara menyangkut hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan hubungan gatu warga negara atau negara satu dengan yang lainnya.

Dasar Hukum Siyasah Dauliyah

Yang menjadi dasar hukum siyasah dauliyah ialah beberapa prinsip yang disinggung oleh Al-Qur‘an. Prinsip-prinsip tersebut merupakan prinsip yang menyatakan bahwa manusia merupakan satu kesatuan yang tak mungkin pecah walau pada kenyataannya berbeda agama, ras, warna kulit, dan bangsa. Hal tersebut tercermin dalam fiman Allah, “Manusia itu adalah umat yang satu. (Setelah timbul perselisihan), Maka Allah mengutus para nabi, sebagai pemberi peringatan, dan Allah menurunkan bersama mereka Kitab yang benar, untuk memberi keputusan di antara manusia tentang perkara yang mereka perselisihkan.” (QS Al-Baqarah: 213)

Macam-macam suku bangsa merupakan sarana untuk saling kenal dan mengembangkan rasa persaudaraan. Perbedaan yang terdapat di dunia ini merupakan sarana untuk saling mengenal sehingga memunculkan sebuah bentuk kerjasama antarsesama. Karena, tak bisa dipungkiri bahwa manusia atau suatu bangsa membutuhkan bangsa lain dalam mengembangkan hidupnya. Maka, terjalinnya hubungan antarnegara merupakan sebuah kebutuhan yang mesti terpenuhi oleh bangsa dan negara mana pun.

Kajian Siyasah Dauliyah

Siyasah dauliyah berkaitan dengan hubungan antara satu negara dengan negara lain, maka yang menjadi konsentrasi ruang lingkup bahasannya ialah sebagai berikut.

Hubungan Internasional

Hubungan internasional ialah hubungan yang dilakukan oleh satu negara dengan negara atau beberapa negara, baik regional (kawasan) maupun internasional. Hubungan internasional merupakan kebutuhan yang mesti dipenuhi oleh setiap Negara.

Adanya kebutuhan dalam membina hubungan satu negara dengan negara lain merupakan hal yang berdasarkan kepada perdamaian. Perdamaian menjadi dambaan semua bangsa yang akan tercipta dengan pengertian antara bangsa-bangsa di dunia. Maka, perdamaian merupakan asas dasar dari terjadinya hubungan internasional.

Adanya hubungan internasional dengan dasar perdamaian maka ada beberapa hal yang menjadi konsekuensi dari hal tersebut.

1. Perang tidak dilakukan dan terjadi antarbangsa kecuali dalam keadaan yang darurat dan terdesak, dan kategori darurat telah diatur serta disepakati.

2. Orang yang tidak ikut berperang tidak dapat diperlakukan sebagai musuh.

3. Segera menghentikan perang apabila salah satu pihak cenderung untuk melaksanakan perdamaian.

4. Tawanan perang diperlakukan secara manusiawi.

Macam-macam hubungan internasional

Menurut keadaannya, hubungan internasional dapat dikategorikan kepada dua macam.

Pertama, hubungan internasional yang dilakukan pada waktu damai.

Perdamaian sangat dijungjung tinggi oleh Islam. Perdamaian, menjaga, dan menghormati hak-hak orang lain dikembangkan kepada tataran yang lebih luas.

Perdamaian tidak akan tercipta tanpa ada usaha dan peran aktif semua bangsa dalam mewujudkannya. Usaha-usaha yang tercermin merupakan dalam mewujudkan dan menjaga tatanan dunia yang penuh dengan perdamaian.

Islam sebagai agama yang ikut berperan dalam menciptakan perdamaian telah menetapkan kewajiban-kewajiban yang perlu dilakukan oleh setiap orang dan negara Islam dalam konteks hubungan internasional di waktu damai. Adapun hal-hal tersebut antara lain. (1) Saling membantu dengan bangsa lain dalam berbagai bidang. (2) Menghormati hak-hak bangsa dan negara lain. (3) Melaksanakan perjanjian yang telah disepakati dan tidak melanggarnya.

Perjanjian internasional merupakan elemen yang sangat penting dalam konteks hubungan internasional demi terjaganya kedamaian. Dengan demikian perjanjian yang dilakukan hendaklah dapat mengikat pihak-pihak yang mengadakan perjanjian. Ada beberapa syarat yang diajukan dalam sebuah perjanjian internasional, di antaranya.

(1) pihak yang melakukan perjanjian hendaklah orang yang mempunyai wewenang, seperti kepala Negara.

(2) perjanjian didasari adanya kerelaan pihak-pihak yang mengadakan perjanjian. Perjanjian hendaklah bersih dari unsur-unsur paksaan, penipuan, dan kesalahan.

(3) lsi perjanjian hendaklah dilakukan secara tertulis dan dokumen perjanjian dimiliki masing-masing pihak yang mengadakan perjanjian.

(4) Perjanjian disepakati dan dilaksanakan untuk ditaati.

Kedua, hubungan internasional yang dilakukan ketika perang.

Hubungan internasional juga dapat dilakukan ketika terjadi Peperangan. Hubungan internasional yang dilakukan dalam keadaan perang merupakan salah satu upaya dalam menghentikan perang dan mewujudkan perdamaian.

Dalam masalah peperangan ada beberapa hal yang perlu diperhatikan di antaranya.

Islam dalam Memandang Perang

Perang merupakan kata yang tidak asing dalam Islam, karena pada sejarah perjalanan Islam awal, Islam banyak mendapat rintangan dan hambatan untuk mengembangkan diri.

Perang yang terjadi dalam masa awal sejarah Islam ialah perang yang dapat dilihat dari konteks paradigma hqih. Dalam paradigma ini perang yang dikenal ada dua macam.

Pertama, perang dalam arti jihad fi sabilillah. Perang tersebut ialah perang agama yang terjadi antara kaum muslimin dan orang-orang kafir yang memusuhi Islam. Dengan demikian, memerangi orang-orang yang menghalangi dan memusuhi Islam termasuk kepada jihad.

Jihad dalam konteks etimologi mempunyai tiga pengertian,

(1) Jihad internal, yaitu jihad memerangi hawa nafsu. Jihad yang demikian dimaknaisebagaiupayaindividu dalam mendekatkan diripadaAllah.

(2) Jihad diartikan sebagai aksi sosial (sosial action) antar sesama makhluk hidup.

(3) Jihad diartikan dengan arti perang sesungguhnya, perang ini dilakukan dalam rangka menegakkan keadilan dan kesalehan.

Kedua, perang dalam konteks politik, yaitu memerangi musuh negara Islam. Siapa saja yang berusaha merongrong dan melawan kepemimpinan Negara Islam wajib diperangi.

Alasan-alasan terjadinya perang

Perang merupakan sebuah hal yang tidak dikehendaki oleh siapa pun termasuk dalam Islam. Ada beberapa hal yang menyebabkan perang terjadi dan perang tidak tabu dilaksanakan, baik secara politis maupun ideologis. Sebab-sebab yang dapat ditolerir dalam melaksanakan perang tersebut di antaranya:

Pertama, perang yang terjadi didasarkan pada alasan mempertahankan diri. Melalui penelusuran sejarah Islam, kita akan mendapatkan bahwa Rasulullah menghimpun kekuatan dengan membentuk tentara untuk mempertahankan Negara Madinah dari serangan musuh-musuh Islam.

Kedua, perang terjadi karena alasan menegakkan dan mensyiarkan Islam. Perang ini terjadi karena perang menjadi satu-satunya jalan untuk dakwah. Dalam hal ini, perang menjadi senjata ampuh yang dapat memuluskan jalan dakwah yang berorientasi pada kebenaran. Dakwah harus tetap berlangsung demi menegakkan kalimat-kalimat Allah dan tidak dapat dihalangi oleh apapun.

Ketiga, perang terjadi karena adanya serangan terlebih dahulu dan merupakan balasan yang sepadan terhadap musuh. Dalam hal ini, Islam memandang perlu apabila orang Islam benar-benar teraniaya dan terzalimi dan sampai diusir dari kampung halamannya.

Keempat, perang yang dilakukan disebabkan adanya perbedaan pemahaman yang sangat krusial dalam agama, sehingga perang menjadi solusi yang dapat menghapus dan melenyapkan perbedaan tersebut demi tercapainya kemaslahatan umat secara umum.

Kelima, perang terjadi karena adanya persoalan politis dalam tubuh negara, sehingga perang yang terjadi ialah perang yang dapat menyelamatkan keutuhan negara dan bangsa.

Selain sebab-sebab di atas, Islam tidak membolehkan adanya perang seperti perang yang terjadi disebabkan karena adanya maksud untuk merampas, menduduki, mengeksploitasi, dan membuat kerusakan serta kehancuran.

Peraturan-peraturan dalam perang

Ada beberapa peraturan dalam perang mengingat perang tidak dapat dilaksankan dengan tanpa perhitungan. Peraturan-peraturan yang mesti ditegakkan dalam peperangan ialah:

Pertama, masalah pembentukan tentara.

Tentara sebagai garda depan dalam sebuah pertempuran merupakan salah satu kelompok yang terdiri dari orang-orang terpilih, terorganisir, mempunyai disiplin tinggi, professional, tangguh dan terampil. Tentara merupakan kumpulan orang-orang yang harus dimiliki oleh suatu negara.

Ada dua hal yang penting dalam pembentukan tentara, yaitu faktor sumber daya manusia dan faktor kelengkapan perang seperti senjata. Hal tersebut merupakan prinsip yang dimiliki negara dalam membentuk tentara. Adapun prinsip-prinsip tersebut ialah:

(1) Sehat secara jasmani dan rohani. Tentara merupakan orang yang memiliki kemampuan fisik yang tangguh, sehat, dan mental yang kuat.

(2) Memiliki keterampilan yang professional dalam berbagai bidang; seperti memanah, menembak, berenang, atau berkuda.

(3) Tertara harus dibekali dengan makna dan ruh perjuangan.

(4) Tentara dibekali dengan persenjataan dan perlengkapan perang yang mumpuni.

Kedua, strategi perang

Strategi, siasat, dan taktik perang merupakan senjata ampuh dalam memenangkan sebuah peperangan. Dengan siasat yang jitu, pasukan yang sedikit dapat mengalahkan pasukan yang banyak, pasukan yang lemah dapat mengalahkan pasukan yang kuat, dan pasukan dengan perlengkapan yang minim dapat mengalahkan pasukan dengan senjata yang jauh lebih lengkap.

Hal di atas cukuplah beralasan, kerena perang bagi para prajurit dan tentara ialah harga mati dan pantang untuk lari. Lari merupakan hal yang sangat terhina dalam sebuah peperangan. Oleh karena itu, melarikan diri dari peperangan tidak dibolehkan dalam kemiliteran, terkecuali lari untuk mengubah siasat dan strategi perang.

Ketiga, pengumuman perang

Perang dalam Islam hanya boleh dilakukan dalam rangka mempertahankan diri, dan perang untuk menolak serangan musuh. Islam tidak memperkenalkan perang terkecuali perang tersebut telah benar-benar diumumkan dan adanya pernyataan perang secara jelas. Pengumuman dan pernyataan perang merupakan tindakan yang dapat menghindari adanya serangan secara tiba-tiba.

Keempat, etika dalam perang

Etika dalam perang merupakan hal yang sangat penting diperhatikan untuk menghindari banyaknya jatuh korban. Adapun etika dalam perang tersebut ialah:

(1) Dilarang membunuh anak-anak.

(2) Dilarang memperkosa, menyiksa, dan membunuh perempuan. perempuan yang tidak ikut berperang.

(3) Dilarang membunuh orang yang sudah lanjut usia yang tidak ikut berperang.

(4) Tidak merusak pohon-pohon, tanaman, sawah, dan ladang.

(5) Tidak merusak dan membunuh binatang ternak, terkecuali untuk dimakan.

(6) Tidak menghancurkan rumah ibadah.

(7) Dilarang membunuh musuh yang terluka dan tidak melawan, dilarang memutilasi mayat musuh.

(8) Dilarang membunuh para pemuka agama dan para pekerja yang tidak ikut berperang.

(9) Bersikaf sabar, berani, ikhlas, dan membersihkan diri dari niat keuntungan duniawi dalam melakukan perang.

(10) Berpegang teguh pada aturan-aturan dan moral perang yang berlaku dan tidak melampaui batas.

Kelima, memperlakukan tawanan perang

Tawanan perang ialah orang-orang yang tertawan oleh negara yang berperang dan orang tersebut termasuk bagian dari kekuatan negara yang berperang. Islam memperlakukan tawanan perang sangat manusiawi.

Hal tersebut tercermin dalam ayat-ayat Al-Qur‘an yang menyatakan bahwa orang-orang yang tertawan harus mendapatkan perlakuan yang manusiawi. Apabila perang telah berakhir tawanan tersebut dibebaskan dengan tanpa syarat ataupun dengan syarat seperti ditebus.

Penghentian perang

Merupakan sebuah kewajiban bagi pihak yang terlibat dalam perang untuk berupaya secepat mungkin menghentikan perang. Penghentian perang merupakan cara untuk menghindarkan jatuhnya korban lebih banyak lagi.

Ada beberapa cara dan alasan yang dapat menghentikan perang antara lain: Pertama, perang dapat dihentikan ketika tujuan perang telah tercapai. Kedua, perang dapat dihentikan karena adanya upaya perdamaian melalui sebuah perjanjian. Adapun perjanjian dalam rangka menghentikan perang ada beberapa macam. Di antaranya :

(1) Perjanjian sementara. Perjanjian ini merupakan perjanjian yang disepakati oleh kedua belah pihak. Perjanjian penghentian perang sementara ini dimanfaatkan pihak yang berperang untuk berbagai keperluan.

(2) Perjanjian abadi. Perjanjian ini ialah perjanjian yang disepakati kedua belah pihak untuk menghentikan perang selamanya.

(3) Perjanjian keamanan. Perjanjian ini berupa jaminan keamanan yang diberikan kepada orang-orang yang perlu dilindungi sekalipun dari pihak musuh.

(4) Pembatalan perjanjian. Dalam konteks perang sebuah perjanjian penghentian perang dapat saja dibatalkan dengan sebab dan alasan tertentu. Pembatalan perjanjian dapat disebabkan adanya pihak yang melanggar dan menghianati kesepakatan. Untuk itu Islam mengajarkan untuk membatalkan perjanjian apabila pihak lain tidak akan menaati dan akan melanggar perjanjian yang dibuat.

Netralitas Sebuah Negara

Netralitas ialah sikap yang tidak ikut dan memihak kepada salah satu pihak yang sedang bersengketa. Dalam realitasnya sikap ini sering dikembangkan oleh negara-negara ketiga yang tidak ikut dalam persengketaan.

Abu Zahrah berpendapat bahwa netralitas sesuai dengan ayat AlQuran surat An-Nisa‘ ayat 90, beliau menerangkan tentang adanya sikap netral terhadap dua pihak yang bertikai.

Sikap netral yang digarisbawahi oleh Islam ialah sikap netral yang dimungkinkan ketika ada dua pihak yang bersengketa dan salah satu dari dua pihak tersebut tidak ada perjanjian damai dengan Negara muslim, atau kedua belah pihak telah mengadakan perjanjian damai dengan negara muslim sebelumnya.

Hal demikian cukuplah beralasan. Pertama, karena pada dasarnya hubungan antara negara muslim dengan non-muslim ialah perdamaian, maka selama tidak ada sebab yang mewajibkan perang perdamaian wajib dipertahankan. Kedua, perang yang terjadi antara kedua belah pihak yang bertikai bertujuan untuk kepentingan duniawi, maka kedua belah pihak termasuk kepada pihak yang sama-sama zalim. Ketiga, masuknya pihak ketiga kepada salah satu pihak yang bertikai merupakan tindakan yang dapat diartikan dengan mendukung kezaliman.

Referensi : Hamsah Hasan, dkk, Buku Panduan Lengkap Agama Islam, Qultum Media, Jakarta, 2010

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  55. An impressive share! I have just forwarded this onto a coworker who was conducting a little research on this. And he in fact ordered me breakfast because I discovered it for him… lol. So let me reword this…. Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanx for spending the time to talk about this matter here on your site.

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  62. Can I just say what a relief to find a person that genuinely understands what they’re talking about over the internet. You definitely realize how to bring an issue to light and make it important. More people ought to check this out and understand this side of your story. I can’t believe you’re not more popular given that you certainly possess the gift.

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  77. Citizen has an extensive collection of watches, primarily concentrating on sporting activities and also pilot watches. They are divided into five groups (Diving, Pilot, Efficiency, Ladies, Executive) which we’ll take a more detailed consider below. One of Citizen Nighthawk newest versions is the Argonautic Bronze TT, which is restricted to just 300 pieces. The development of this watch follows the success of the previous year’s Citizen Nighthawk bronze version, which sold out promptly.

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  80. An impressive share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a colleague who was conducting a little research on this. And he in fact ordered me lunch because I stumbled upon it for him… lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending time to talk about this topic here on your web site.

  81. I was excited to discover this site. I wanted to thank you for ones time for this particularly fantastic read!! I definitely loved every bit of it and i also have you bookmarked to see new stuff on your website.

  82. Citizen has an comprehensive collection of watches, primarily concentrating on sporting activities and also pilot watches. They are split into five groups (Diving, Pilot, Performance, Ladies, Exec) which we’ll take a better consider below. Among Citizen Nighthawk most recent versions is the Argonautic Bronze TT, which is limited to just 300 pieces. The creation of this watch adheres to the success of the previous year’s Citizen Nighthawk bronze version, which sold out rapidly.

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  91. Citizen has an substantial collection of watches, mostly focusing on sporting activities and also pilot watches. They are divided right into five groups (Diving, Pilot, Efficiency, Ladies, Exec) which we’ll take a closer consider below. One of Citizen Nighthawk newest designs is the Argonautic Bronze TT, which is restricted to only 300 pieces. The creation of this watch follows the success of the previous year’s Citizen Nighthawk bronze version, which sold out quickly.

  92. Can I just say what a comfort to find someone who really understands what they’re discussing on the internet. You actually realize how to bring a problem to light and make it important. More people should read this and understand this side of your story. I was surprised that you aren’t more popular since you definitely have the gift.

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  94. Citizen has an comprehensive collection of watches, mainly concentrating on sports and pilot watches. They are divided right into five classifications (Diving, Pilot, Efficiency, Ladies, Executive) which we’ll take a closer consider below. Among Citizen Nighthawk latest designs is the Argonautic Bronze TT, which is limited to just 300 items. The production of this watch complies with the success of the previous year’s Citizen Nighthawk bronze design, which sold out swiftly.

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  100. An outstanding share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a co-worker who has been conducting a little homework on this. And he actually bought me breakfast because I stumbled upon it for him… lol. So let me reword this…. Thank YOU for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending some time to discuss this issue here on your web site.

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  103. An outstanding share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a colleague who has been conducting a little research on this. And he actually bought me breakfast due to the fact that I found it for him… lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thank YOU for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending time to discuss this subject here on your blog.

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  119. Aw, this was an incredibly nice post. Taking the time and actual effort to make a great articleÖ but what can I sayÖ I hesitate a whole lot and don’t seem to get anything done.

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  123. After I initially commented I appear to have clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now whenever a comment is added I receive 4 emails with the exact same comment. Perhaps there is an easy method you can remove me from that service? Thank you!

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  125. Citizen has an comprehensive collection of watches, mainly focusing on sporting activities as well as pilot watches. They are divided right into five categories (Diving, Pilot, Efficiency, Ladies, Exec) which we’ll take a better consider below. One of Citizen Nighthawk latest versions is the Argonautic Bronze TT, which is restricted to only 300 items. The creation of this watch complies with the success of the previous year’s Citizen Nighthawk bronze model, which sold out swiftly.

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  130. Greetings, I think your web site might be having web browser compatibility issues. When I look at your site in Safari, it looks fine however, if opening in I.E., it’s got some overlapping issues. I simply wanted to provide you with a quick heads up! Apart from that, great website!

  131. Hmm is anyone else having problems with the images on this blog loading? I’m trying to figure out if its a problem on my end or if it’s the blog. Any feedback would be greatly appreciated.

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  134. I blog frequently and I truly appreciate your information. This article has really peaked my interest. I am going to book mark your website and keep checking for new details about once per week. I opted in for your Feed too.

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  138. When I originally commented I appear to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now every time a comment is added I recieve four emails with the exact same comment. There has to be a way you can remove me from that service? Appreciate it!

  139. I’m very happy to discover this great site. I wanted to thank you for your time for this fantastic read!! I definitely loved every part of it and i also have you saved to fav to see new stuff in your web site.

  140. Can I simply say what a relief to uncover someone who truly understands what they’re discussing online. You certainly realize how to bring an issue to light and make it important. More and more people should look at this and understand this side of the story. I was surprised you’re not more popular since you most certainly have the gift.

  141. I absolutely love your blog.. Great colors & theme. Did you create this amazing site yourself? Please reply back as Iím wanting to create my very own site and would love to find out where you got this from or exactly what the theme is named. Kudos!

  142. Next time I read a blog, I hope that it won’t fail me just as much as this particular one. I mean, I know it was my choice to read through, nonetheless I truly thought you would have something interesting to talk about. All I hear is a bunch of whining about something you could possibly fix if you weren’t too busy seeking attention.

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  147. A motivating discussion is definitely worth comment. I do believe that you should write more about this issue, it might not be a taboo subject but typically folks don’t talk about these issues. To the next! Best wishes!!

  148. An outstanding share! I have just forwarded this onto a coworker who has been conducting a little homework on this. And he actually ordered me breakfast due to the fact that I discovered it for him… lol. So let me reword this…. Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending the time to talk about this issue here on your site.

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