Siyasah (Politik Islam)

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Secara etimologi, siyasah berarti (memelihara, mengajar, mengatur dan memerintah) dan dapat diartikan dengan pemerinthan dan politik. Secara literal dapat diartikan dengan pemerintahan, pengambil keputusan, pembuat peraturan, kebijakan, penyelenggara negara.

Secara terminologi, siyasah sebagaimana diungkapkan Ahmad Fathi Bahatsi adalah “Pengurusan kemaslahatan umat manusia sesuai dengan syara.” Dalam pengertian ini siyasah mempunyai dua unsur penting yang saling mengadakan timbal balik, unsur tersebut adalah pihak yang mengatur dan pihak yang diatur.

Dalam bidang politik, dua unsur tersebut merupakan unsur yang paling penting, sehingga siyasah dapat dikatakan sebagai ilmu politik dalam Islam. Walaupun secara garis depan ilmu politik Islam memiliki kesamaan dengan ilmu politik umum, namun tetap terdapat perbedaan antara keduanya. Perbedaan tersebut bahwa politik Islam harus sesuai dengan syariat. Hal inilah yang dapat membedakan sistem politik lslam dengan sistem politik lainnya.

Landasan Hukum Siyasah

Yang menjadi landasan hukum dalam siyasah adalah ayat-ayat Al. Qur’an yang salah satunya berkaitan dengan persatuan dan kesatuan umat, “Sesungguhnya (agama Tauhid) ini, adalah agama kamu semua, agama yang satu, dan Aku adalah Tuhanmu, Maka bertakwalah kepada Ku.” (QS Al-Mu’minun: 52)

Selain ayat di atas masih banyak ayat yang dapat dijadikan landasan hukum siyasah, di antara ayat-ayat yang berkaitan dengan keharusan adanya musyawarah dalam menyelesaikan masalah, menetapkan hukum Allah, menaati Allah, Rasul-Nya, dan para pemimpin, mempertahankan Negara, mendamaikan konflik, dan perdamaian.

Kajian Siyasah

Ruang lingkup kajian siyasah adalah segala sesuatu yang berkaitan dengan pengaturan warga negara, hubungan antar lembaga negara, lembaga negara dengan lembaga negara, hubungan yang bersifat internal maupun eksternal pada berbagai bidang kehidupan. Dari sini diketahui yang menjadi kajian pokok siyasah adalah masalah pengaturan.

Seiring dengan perkembangannya, objek kajian fiqih siyasah menjadi semakin luas, namun objek tersebut dapat dibagi kepada tiga bidang pokok berikut.

Siyasah Dusturiyah

Islam dengan segala syariatnya bertujuan memberikan maslahat bagi kehidupan manusia di dunia dan akhirat. Syariat-syariat tersebut salah satunya berbentuk undang-undang atau peraturan yang telah terbukukan dalam Al-Qur‘an dan as-Sunah. Undang-undang dan peraturan tersebut berkaitan dengan prinsip-prinsip kehidupan masyarakat dalam konteks sebuah Negara. Dalam istilah fiqih siyasah hal yang menjelaskan tentang prinsip-prinsip tersebut disebut dengan siyasah dusturiayah.

Pengertian Siyasah Dusturiyah

Secara etimologi, dusturiayah berasal dari kata dustur (undang-undang dan peraturan). Sehingga pada dasarnya siyasah dusturiah membahas tentang peraturan dan undang-undang dalam konteks negara Islam.

Secara terminologi sebagaimana yang diungkapkan Abu Al-A’la Al-Maududi, ialah suatu dokumen yang memuat prinsip-prinsip pokok yang menjadi landasan pengaturan suatu negara.

Dari pengertian di atas dapat dipahami bahwa siyasah dusturiyah adalah undang-undang dan peraturan yang mengatur hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan hubungan warga negara (rakyat) dengan pemimpinnya, rakyat dengan lembaga negara dalam koridor yang sesuai dengan syariat demi tercapainya kemaslahatan umat.

Dasar Hukum Siyasah Dusturiyah

Dasar hukum siyasah dusturiyah ialah ayat-ayat AI-Qur‘an yang berkaitan dengan prinsip-prinsip kehidupan masyarakat. Seperti adanya kemestian menggunakan hukum-hukum Allah, “Hai Daud, Sesungguhnya kami menjadikan kamu khalifah (penguasa) di muka bumi, berilah keputusan (perkara) di antara manusia dengan adil dan janganlah kamu mengikuti hawa nafsu, karena ia akan menyesatkan kamu dari jalan Allah. Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang sesat darin jalan Allah akan mendapat azab yang berat, karena mereka melupakan hari perhitungan.” (QS Shaad: 26)

Ayat di atas menerangkan bahwa adanya keharusan memakai hukum yang telah ditentukan Allah dalam memutuskan sebuah perkara. Hukum, peraturan, dan undang-undang yang telah disyariatkan Allah dan Rasul-Nya ialah undang-undang dan peraturan yang benar dan memberikan maslahat bagi manusia di dunia dan di akhirat.

Referensi : Hamsah Hasan, dkk, Buku Panduan Lengkap Agama Islam, Qultum Media, Jakarta, 2010

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