The essential right of man towards God is to worship Him alone, setting up no rivals or partners with Him, nor attributing any sons or daughters to Him. The eternal truth of all existence is that LA ILAHA ILLA-ALLAH – “There is nothing worthy of being worshipped except God,” meaning that there is no socalled “god” or deity or entity worthy of worship and absolute obedience except for the One Creator. This is the testimony of faith of a Muslim that involves the following requirements:
The eternal truth of all existence is that LA ILAHA ILALALLAH “There is no god worthy of being worshipped except Allah”.
- God alone deserves to be worshiped and obeyed in an absolute sense. None has the right to be worshiped along with or besides Him. All statements, acts and hidden intentions must agree with what the Almighty has designated. All actions of man must be performed for the Pleasure of the Almighty. The Almighty states in the Qur’an:
(And your Lord says, “Call upon Me; I will respond to you.” Indeed, those who disdain My worship will enter Hell [rendered] contemptible.) [40:60]
- A Muslim is required to believe in the “Names and Attributes” that God has given Himself, or those attributed to Him through revelation by His Prophet and Messenger (pbuh). No one may attribute any name or quality by speculation to God that neither God nor His Prophet and Messenger have attributed to Him. He must not offer any undue explanation or similitude or to express an opinion concerning these Names and Attributes of God. God the Exalted says in the Glorious Qur’an:
(There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.) [42:11]
Allah alone deserves to be worshiped and obeyed in an absolute sense. None has the right to be worshiped along with or besides Him.
- Man must submit himself to God in faith with total and sincere belief, declaring with his tongue, accepting with his heart and showing with his actions the truth of the statement that God, the Almighty, states in the Qur’an:
(So know, [O Muhammad], that there is no deity except Allah and ask forgiveness for your sin and for the believing men and believing women. And Allah knows of your movement and your resting place.) [47:19]
- Human beings are obligated to give full and total submission to the Will of God. This is based on the instruction of the verse of the Qur’an:
(It is not for a believing man or a believing woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter, that they should [thereafter] have any choice about their affair. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger has certainly strayed into clear error.) [33:36]
- A Muslim must have pure love of God as well as His Prophet and Messenger (pbuh). This love should dominate the love of other beings and his own self. God the Exalted says in the Qur’an:
(Say: [O Muhammad], “If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your relatives, wealth which you have obtained, commerce wherein you fear decline, and dwellings with which you are pleased are more beloved to you than Allah and His Messenger and jihad in His cause, then wait until Allah executes His command. And Allah does not guide the defiantly disobedient people.) [9:24]
- Man must worship God only in the manner and form legislated by God through his Messenger and Prophet (pbuh). It is not allowed to invent an act of worship through speculation and then ascribe it to the true religion. All the worship should be in line with the revealed religion of Islam. For example to offer the prayer. One of the fruits of offering and maintaining such prayer is that it helps to enjoin good and stop all evil acts. God, the Almighty, states in the Qur’an:
(Recite [O Muhammad] what has been revealed to you of the Book and establish prayer. Indeed, prayer prohibits immorality and wrongdoing, and the remembrance of Allah is greater. And Allah knows that which you do.) [29:45]
The payment of Zakah (obligatory charity) to the destitute and needy generates self-purification and elimination of miserliness, as well as alleviating the pains and trials of the less fortunate. God, the Almighty, states in the Qur’an:
(He who spends his wealth for increase in self-purification. And who has in mind no favor from anyone to be paid back. Except to seek the Countenance of his Lord, the Most High. He surely will be pleased. ) [92:18-21]
Observing fasting enables man to have better control and self-discipline over temptations and passions. Man becomes more pious and God-fearing, and becomes more conscious of the needs of the poor and less fortunate. Almighty God states in the Qur’an:
(O you who believe, fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may achieve piety.) [2:183]
An old person who is unable to observe fasting, and a sick person who also cannot observe fasting are conveniently exempted from fasting.
Hajj (pilgrimage) also has many benefits, as God, the Almighty, states in the Qur’an:
(That they may witness benefits for themselves and mention the name of Allah on known days over what He has provided for them of [sacrificial] animals. So eat of them and feed the downtrodden and poor.) [22:28]
All these and other acts of worship in Islam are meant for man’s own benefit. There is never undue hardship when performed under normal circumstances. God, the Almighty, states in the Qur’an:
(God intends for you ease and He does not want to make things difficult for you.) [2:185]
The Messenger of God (pbuh) said in support of this concept:
“If I command you to do anything, do as much as you can.” (Bukhari, Hadith No. 1337)
And he (pbuh) said:
“Religion is easy…” (Bukhari, Hadith No. 39)
The Hajj is not obligatory on any person who is incapable due to physical inability or financial constraints since the person intending Hajj must have sufficient funds to satisfy himself and his family’s needs beyond the expenses of pilgrimage.
In the event of sickness and other legitimate hardships, acts of worship are either completely exempted or lessened with some concessions. For instance, standing is required to perform the daily-prescribed prayer, but if one is unable to stand he may offer it sitting down, and if that is not possible, by lying down on the side of the body or on his back, or in any other way that is suitable and comfortable to his situation. If a worshipper is not able to maintain his prayer in any of the above situations, he may pray by the motions of his hands or even eyes.
It is incumbent to perform ablution prior to offering a prayer but this requirement is waived if a Muslim cannot find water or there is some harm in its use. In place of water, he performs dry ablution instead and offers his prayer exactly as if he had performed ablution with water.
A woman in her menstrual period or one who is experiencing post-natal bleeding is exempted from both fasting and performing prayer until her bleeding completely stops, and she is not required to make up the prayers she missed later.
A Muslim, male or female, who does not possess Nisab (the requisite minimal amount on the basis of which it is obligatory to pay the obligated charity of Zakah), is not required to pay any Zakah.
An old person who is unable to observe fasting, and a sick person who also cannot observe fasting are exempted from fasting. They have to pay its atonement if they are able. Atonement is to feed a needy person one meal for each day not fasted. Similarly, a traveler may break his fast while traveling, as traveling involves hardship and fatigue.
The Hajj is not obligatory on any person who is incapable due to physical inability or financial constraints since the person intending Hajj must have sufficient funds to satisfy himself and his family’s needs beyond the expenses of pilgrimage. God, the Exalted, says in the Qur’an:
(In [the House of worship in Makkah] are manifest signs [such as] the Station of Abraham; whosoever enters it, he attains security. And the pilgrimage to the House is a duty that mankind owes to God, those who can afford the expenses; and whoever disbelieves, then God stands not in need of any of His creatures.) [3:97]
Another example of the mitigation of hardships in Islam is when a person faces the shortage of lawful food and is on the brink of death; in this case, he is allowed to eat even unlawful food items like blood and meat of dead animals, enough to keep him alive. This rule is also based upon the instructions of the Qur’an:
([God] has forbidden you only the dead animals, and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than God. But if one is forced by necessity without willful disobedience nor transgressing due limits, then there is no sin on him. Truly, God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) [2:173]
Reference : Dr. Abdul-Rahman Al-Sheha, Human Rights in Islam, Usool International Centre, Riyadh, ISBN: 978-603-90936-9-5
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