Ini Tumbuh-Kembang Anak Usia 4 Tahun yang Harus Orangtua Ketahui

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Ilustrasi / Google
Ilustrasi / Google

Saat memasuki usia 4 tahun, si kecil umumnya penuh dengan energi, lebih banyak berbicara dan selalu rasa ingin tau. Biasanya mental dan emosional orangtua akan teruji di masa ini, sehingga setiap hari akan menjadi suatu tantangan baru bagi Anda dan juga si kecil.

Setiap anak berbeda dan apa yang dilakukannya di usia 4 tahun ini mungkin agak berbeda dengan yang lainnya. Meskipun demikian, ada beberapa tolak ukur yang mungkin perlu Anda ketahui di usia ini.

TOLAK UKUR PERKEMBANGAN ANAK USIA 4 TAHUN YANG HARUS ORANGTUA KETAHUI

Di usia ini, si kecil cenderung ingin memperlihatkan kepada Anda mengenai sesuatu yang bisa dilakukannya. Secara konstan mereka akan menguji dan mengungkapkan perasaan aman dan ketidaknyamanan tentang lingkungannya. Mereka juga cenderung menjadi seorang anak kecil yang suka memerintah.

Berikut beberapa keterampilan yang biasa ditunjukan si kecil saat usia 4 tahun :

1. KEMAMPUAN SOSIAL YANG DIMILIKI ANAK USIA 4 TAHUN

~ Lebih memperlihatkan kemandirian. Seperti mampu menyikat gigi dan berpakaian sendiri.
~ Cenderung banyak menuntut tetapi juga bersemangat untuk diajak bekerjasama.
~ Kadang berperilaku tidak sopan. Semakin Anda bereaksi emosional, maka semakin dia akan berkelakuan buruk.
~ Dia ingin disukai dan ingin menyenangkan teman-temanya, serta berharap memiliki teman dekat.
~ Tahu dan mengerti tentang hal sehari-hari seperti makanan, uang dan konsep waktu.
~ Memiliki rasa kepemilikan, dimana ia akan memandang segala sesuatu sebagai miliknya.
~ Sudah memiliki rasa simpati dan rasa sedih ketika seseorang atau apapun berada di dalam kesusahan atau kesedihan. Ini pulalah yang ia harapkan dari orang disekitarnya ketika berada dalam situasi yang sama.
~ Sadar akan seksualitas dan memiliki rasa ingin tau alami mengenai hal tersebut.
~ Memperlihatkan ketertarikan yang tinggi dalam bernyanyi, menari dan akting.
~ Penuh dengan ide imajinatif .
~ Mencoba untuk membedakan antara khayalan dan kenyataan.

2. KEMAMPUAN MOTORIK YANG DIMILIKI ANAK USIA 4 TAHUN

~ Memiliki koordinasi dan keseimbangan seperti orang dewasa- juga kekuatan otot untuk melakukan aktivitas yang lebih menantang.
~ Cenderung lebih aktif dan menyukai gerakan-gerakan, seperti memanjat, berayun, berjungkir balik dan melompat.
~ Gemar menulis, melukis, berlenggok bak model, melekatkan dan membangun struktur bangunan.
~ Gambar tanganya umumnya memperlihatkan semua unsur penting seperti mata, hidung dan mulutmeskipun memang tidak menyerupai persis gambar orang.

3. KEMAMPUAN BERBAHASA YANG DIMILIKI ANAK USIA 4 TAHUN

~ Sudah bisa berhitung hingga angka sepuluh bahkan lebih.
~ Mampu menyebutkan paling tidak empat macam warna.
~ Tak jarang si kecil akan melontarkan kata makian yang sering didengarnya dari orang disekitarnya. Tapi yang lebih disukainya adalah melihat perubahan wajah Anda ketika dia mengatakan katakan kata tersebut. Sebaiknya, Anda jangan meresponnya terlalu berlebihan!

PERAN ORANGTUA DALAM MENGHADAPI ANAK USIA 4 TAHUN

Semangat si Kecil untuk melakukan semuanya sendiri, seperti makan atau memakai bajunya, jangan dipatahkan setiap kali Ibu melihat ia melakukannya dengan salah atau lamban.

Bantu dia secara perlahan. Pilihlah pakaian yang mudah dikenakan, serta makanan yang tidak repot untuk dimakan agar mengurangi rasa frustasinya. Tetap dampingi si Kecil saat menyikat gigi, mandi, dan menyisir rambutnya.

Manfaatkan waktu orangtua untuk mengecek apakah imunisasinya sudah sesuai jadwal. Seiring kesenangannya dalam mengeksplorasi dunia luar, tetap jaga imunitas si Kecil agar tidak mudah terserang penyakit, terutama akibat perubahan cuaca yang drastis. Kebiasaan makan yang sehat, seperti rajin sarapan setiap pagi akan membantu si Kecil dalam menjaga daya tahan tubuhnya.

Ajari kebiasaan sehat dengan menyontohkannya. Tunjukkan kebiasaan orangtua memakan sayur, agar si Kecil bisa dengan mudah menirunya. Hindari kebiasaan membedakan makanan “ini makanan Ibu” dan “makanan si Kecil”.

Tidak perlu takut mengatakan tidak pada si Kecil. Memberi batasan adalah tanggung jawab otangtua. Sadari bahwa tidak ada anak yang suka diberi kata “tidak”, namun disiplin itu penting untuk perkembangan si Kecil, dan orangtua tidak mungkin bisa menyenangkan dan mengikuti mau si Kecil setiap saat.

Bila ada perubahan pada rutinitas si Kecil, seperti orangtua tidak bisa membacakan cerita sebelum tidur karena harus bekerja, berikan pemberitahuan sebelumnya sehingga bisa lebih mudah diterima oleh si Kecil dan mengurangi kemungkinan si Kecil ngambek.

YANG PERLU DIPERHATIKAN OLEH ORANGTUA

Bila orangtua menemukan tanda-tanda di bawah ini pada si Kecil, segera konsultasikan dengan dokter anak Ibu:

~ Tidak bisa melempar bola
~ Tidak bisa melompat di tempat
~ Tidak bisa memegang krayon di antara jempol dan telunjuknya
~ Kesulitan dalam mencorat-coret
~ Masih menangis kencang setiap kali Ibu dan Ayah pergi
~ Tidak tertarik terhadap mainan dan teman sebayanya
~ Tidak merespon terhadap orang-orang di luar keluarga
~ Tidak bermain dengan imajinasinya
~ Tidak bisa menggunakan kalimat panjang
~ Menolak berpakaian, tidur, atau menggunakan toilet.

Sumber : Sayangianak.com

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